OESJD II.5; on Psal. 144.15

[fol. 78r] The Text
Blessed are the people that
bee soe:
yea blessed are the people
God is the Lorde. Psalme

The first parte of this Text hath relac[i]on to temporall blessings, blessed is the people that be soe: ye second parte to spirrituall, yea blessed is the people whose god is the Lord. His Can: 2: 6 left hand is vnder my head, saies the Spouse, that sustaines mee from falling into murmurings, or diffidence of his providence, because out of his left hand he hath given mee a competencye of his temporall blessings: but his right hand doth embrace me, sayes the Spouse there, his spirrituall blessings fill mee, possesse mee, soe, that noe rebellious fire breaks out wth in mee, noe outward temptac[i]on breakes in vpon mee Soe allso saies Solomon againe In her left hand is riches and glorye, (temporall blessings) pro: 3: 16 and in her right hand length of dayes, all yt accomplished & fullfills the eternall ioyes of the saints of heaven. The p[er]son to whom Solomon attributs this right and left hand is wisedome, and a wisse man maye reach out his right and left hand to receive the blessings of both Sorts: and the person whom Salomon repr[e]sents by wisdome there, is Christ himselfe, soe that not onelye a worldlye wise man, but a Christian wiseman maye reach out both hands, to both kinds of blessings, right and left, Spirrituall & temporall And therefore Interrogo uas, filios regni cælorum, saies StAugustine, let mee aske you, who are Sonnes and heyres of the kingdome of
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heaven, Progieniem resurrectionis in æternum, you that are ye offspring of the resurecc[i]on of Christ Iesus, and haue yo[u]r resurecc[i]on in his, Membra christi, Templa spiritus sancti, you that are the verye bodye of Christ you that are the verye Temples of the holye, Interro vos, let me aske you for all yo[u]r great reverc[i]on hereafter, for all that pr[e]sent possession wch you haue of it, in an appr[e]hensiv.e Faith, and in a holye conversation in this liffe, for all that blessednes non est ista fælicitas! is there not a blessednes in enioying Gods temporall blessings here too! Sit licet sed sinistra, saies that Father, it is certainelye a blessednes, but a left handed blessednes, a weaker, a more imp[er]fect blessednes then spirrituall blessings are/

As then there is Dextra, and Sinistra beatitudo, a right handed and left handed blessednes in the Text, Soe there is Dextra and Sinistra Interpretac[i]o, a right and left exposition of the Text, And as both these blessednesses temporall and Spirituall, are seales and testimonyes of gods love, though not both of equall strength and equall evidence. Soe both the interpr[e]tac[i]ons of theis wordes, are vsefull for o[u]r edificac[i]on, thoughe they be not both of equall authoritye, That wch we call Sinistram Interpretationem, is that sence wch of these wordes wch arises from ye first translators of the bible the Septuagine, and those fathers wch followed them wch, though it be not an ill waye, is not the best, because it is not according to the letter: and then, that wch wee call Dextram Interpretac[i]onem, is that sence, wch arises pregnantlye, and evidentlye, liquidlye, and manifestlye out of the originall Text it selfe/

The authors and followers of the first sence, read not these wordes as wee doe Beatus populus, that people is blessed, but Beatum dixerunt populum, that people was esteemed blessed, and soe they refer this, and all the temporall blessings menc[i]ond in the three former verses to a populer erro[u]r, to a generall mistaking, to the opinions and words of wicked and worldlye men, that onelye they desire theis temporall thinges, onelye they tast a sweetnes and appr[e]hend a blessednes in them: whereas, they whoe haue truelye their conversac[i]on in heaven, are swallowed vpp wth the contemplac[i]on of that blessednes, wthout any refecc[i]o[n] vppon earth or earthlye thinges. But the author of the Second sence wch is god himselfe, and his direct word, pr[e]sents it thus, Beatus Populus, that people is truelye blessed, there is a true blessednes in temporall things: but yet this is but Sinistra beatitudo, a lesse perfect blessednes: for the followers of both interpr[e]tac[i]ons, and all translators, & all expositors meet in this, that the perfect the accomplishing, the consumatory blessednes is onelye in this, That our God be the Lord/

1a Interpr[e]tatio First then to make o[u]r best vse of the first sence, that temp[or]all thinges conduce not at all to blessednes. StCiprians wonder is iust. Deum nobis solis contentum esse, nobis non sufficene deum: that God should thinke man enough for him, and man should not be satisfyed wth god: that God should be content wthfili da mihi cor, my sonne give mee thy harte, and man should not be content wthPater da mihi spiritum, my God, my Father graunt mee thy spirritt, but must haue temporall addic[i]ons too. non est Castum cor, saies St Augustine, Si deu[m] ad mercedem colet: as hee saies in another place non est casta vxor, quæ amat quia diues, shee is never the honester woman, nor the lovinger wife,
[catchword(s): that]

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that, that loves her husband in contemplac[i]on of her future Ioyncture, or in fruic[i]on of her present abundances, soe, he sayes here non est castum cor, that man hath not a Chast a sincere hart towards god, that loves him by the measure and p[ro]porc[i]on of his temporall blessings. The devill had soe much Collo[u]r for that argument, that in prosp[er]itye there can be noe tryall whether a man love god or noe, as that he presses it even to God himselfe, in Iobs Case: Doth Iob serue God for nought.’hast not thou Iob 1:hedged him in and blessed the workes of his hands, and encreased his substance, how canst thou tell whether he will loue thee or feare thee if thou shouldest take awaye all this from him! thou hast had noe tryall yet. And this argument descended from that father to his Children, fro[m] the Divell there to those followers of his whom the Prophet Malachy 3: 14: reprehends for saying, it is in uaine to serue God, for what profitte is it that wee haue kept his commaundements? when men are willing to pr[e]ferre their Freindes, wee heare them often giue this testimonyes of a man, he hath good p[ar]ts and you need not be ashamed to speake for him, he hath mony in his purse, and yee need not be sorrye to speake for him. he vnderstands the world, he knowes how thinges passe, and he hath a discreet, a Supple, and an applyable disposition, and he may make a fitt instrument for all yo[u]r purposes, and you need not be affraid to speake for him. But whoe ever casts into this scale and valuac[i]on of a man, that waight, that he hath a religious harte, that he feares god? what p[ro]fitt is there in that if we consider the world onlye/

But what p[ro]fitts it a man if he gett all the world and loose his owne Soule! and therefore that opinion that there was noe profitt at all, noe degree towards blessednes in theis temporall things, pr[e]vaild soe farr, as that it is easye to obserue in theis opposicons vpo[n] the Lords prayer, that the greatest parte of the Fathrs doe ever interpret that petition. Da nobis hodie, give vs this daye our dayly bred, to be intented onlye of spirrituall blessings, and not of temporall, Soe StIerome saies, when wee aske that bread, Illum petimus qui panis vivus est, et descendit de cælo, wee make o[u]r Petition for him, whoe is the bread of liffe, and descended from the bosome of the Father, and soe he referres it to Christ, and in him to the whole mistery of o[u]r redemption. And Athanasius, and St Augustine too (and not they two alone) referre it to the sacramentall bread, that in that petition wee desire such an applicac[i]on of the bread of liffe, as wee haue in the participac[i]on of the body and bloud of Christ Iesus in that Communion St Cyprian insists vpon the word Nostru[m], our bread, for saies hee temporall blessings cannot p[ro]perlye be called ours, because they are com[m]on to the Saints and to the reprobates, but in a prayer ordayned by Christ for the Faithfull, the petitio[n] is for such thinges as are proper and peculiar to the Faithfull, and that is for Spirrituall blessings onlye. If any man shall saye, Ideo quærenda quia necessaria, wee must praye, and wee must labo[u]r for temporall thinges, because they are necessary for vs, wee cannot be wth out them Ideo non quærenda quia necessaria, saies St Chrisost,
[catchword(s): So much]

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soe much of them as is necessarye for o[u]r best estate god will give vs, wthout this laborious anxietye, and wthout eating the bread of sorrow in this liffe, Non sperandum de superfluis, non disperandum de necessariis, Saies the same Father, It is a Suspitious thing to doubt or distrust God in necessarye thinges, and it is an vnmannerlye thinge to presse him in Sup[er]faluous thinges. They are not necessary before, and they are not o[u]rs after for those thinges are onlye o[u]rs wch noe bodye cann take from vs; and for temporall thinges Auferre potest inimicus homo, inuito: let the inimicus homo be the Divell, and rememb[e]r Iobs casse: let the inimicus homo be any envious and powerfull man, whoe hath a mynde to that wch thou hast, and remember Nabothes Casse, and this envious man can take any temporall thinge from thee against thy will But spirrituall blessings cannot be taken soe, fidem nemo perdidit, nisi qui spreverit, saies StAugustine, Noe man .ever lost his Faith but he that thought it not worth the keeping. and the Spirrituall blessings of a faith full man are never lost totallye, though he fall into sinnes of infirmitye, though he fall into Scruples in matters of Faith, yet there is Semen dei in him, all is not lost. But for Iobs temporall estate, saies St August, all was lost. And least any man should saye, vxor relicta erat, Iob had not lost all because his wife was left, misericordem putatis diabolum, saies that Father, qui ei religuit vxorem? doe you thinke that Iob lighted vpon a mercifull and good natur’d Devill that the Devill did this out of pittye and compassion to Iob, or that Iob was beholding to the Devill for this, that he left him his wiffe, noverat per quam deceperat, Adam, saies he, the Devill knew by what instrumt he had deceived the first man, and by the same Instrument he pratises vpon Iob, suam religuit adiutricem, non mariti consolatrice[m], he left Iob a helper, but a helper for his owne ends, but for her husband a miserable comforter. Caro Coniux, saies the same Father in another place, this flesh, this sensuall part of ours, is our wiffe, and when theis temporall things by any occasion are taken from vs that wiffe, that flesh, that sensuallitye, is left to murmurre & repine at gods correcc[i]ons, and thats all the benefitt we haue by yt wiffe, and all the porc[i]on wee haue wth that wiffe/

Though therefore St Ierome; who vnderstood the originall language the best of his tyme, in his translac[i]on of the Psalmes, doe giue the true, the right sence of this place: yet in his owne commentaryes vpon the psalmes, he takes this first sence, and beates vpo[n] that Doctrine, that it is but a populer erro[u]r, a gen[er]all mistakinge, to make worldlye blessings any degree of happines, he saw soe good vse of that Doctrine, as that he would not see the right interpr[e]tac[i]on of the wordes: he sawe well enough that according to the letter of ye text, temporall thinges were blessings, yet because they were but left handed blessings, remembring the storye in the booke of Iudges, of 700 left handed Beniamites yt would sling stones at a haires breadth and were better marke-men then the right handed: & considering the left handed men of this world, those who pursued tempo[ra]ll blessings onlye went wth most earnestnes, and best succes to their workes: To correct that generall distemper, that gen[er]all vehemence
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vpon temporall thinges, St Ierome, and soe manye of the Fathers, as accompany him in that interpr[e]tac[i]on were content to embrace that sence, wch is not truelye the litterall sence of this place that it should be onelye beatum dixerunt, and not beatus populus, a popul[a]r erro[u]r, and not a truthe, that any man, or any people, were blessed in temporall thinges, And soe wee haue done wth the first sense of thes wordes, and the reason whye soe many followe it/

2a Interpr[e]tatio Wee are come nowe to the Second Interpr[e]tac[i]on, where there is not beatitudo falsa, and vera, for both are true, but there is Dextra, and Sinistra, a right handed, and left handed blessednes, there is inchoatiua, and perfectiua, there is an introductory and a consumatory blessednes: And in the first of theis, in the left handed, in the lesse perfect blessednes, wee must consider Three thinges, First beatitudine[m] Ipsam, that there is a blessednes proposed: and Secondlye, In quibus, in what that blessednes is plac’d in this Text, quibus sic, blessed are they that are soe, that is, soe, as is menc[i]oned in the three former verses, and 3ly another in quibus, not in what things, but in what p[er]sons this first blessednes is plac’d, beatus populus, it is, when all ye people, the whole bodye, and not some rancks of men, nor some p[ar]ticuler men in those ranks, but when all the people participate of theis blessings

Now first for this first blessednes, As noe Philosopher Beatitudo could ever tell vs amongst the gentills, what true blessednes was: soe noe Gramarian amongst the Iewes, amongst the Hebrewes, could ever tell vs what the right significac[i]on of this word is, in which Dauid expr[e]sses blessednes here. whether Asherei, wch is ye word, be a plurall nowne, and signifie beatitudines, blessednesses, in the plurall, and intimate thus much, that blessednes consists not in any one thinge, but in a harmonye and consent of many, or wheth[e]r this Asherei be and adverbe, and signifye beate and soe be an acclamac[i]on, o how happilye how blessedlye are such men p[ro]vided for, that are soe, they cannot tell what soever it be, it is the verye first word, wth wchDauid begins his booke of Psalmes. Beatus vir. as ye last word of that booke is laudate dominum to shew, that all that passes betweene god and man, from first to last, is blessings fro[m] god to man, and prayses from man to God: and that the first degree of blessednes is, to find the print of the hand of god, even in his temporall blessednes, and to prayse and gloryefye him for them, in the right vse of them/

A man that hath noe Land to hold by it, nor title to recou[er] by it, for fynding or buying, or having a fayre peece of evidence, a fayre Instrument, fayrelye written, duely seald, authentically testifyed, a man that hath not the grace of god, and spirrituall blessings too, is never the neerer happiness for all his abundances of temporall blessednes. Evidences are evidences to them, whoe have title: Temporall blessings are evidences to them whoe haue a testimony of gods spirrituall blessings in the temporall. Otherwisse, as in his hands whoe hath noe title, it is a suspicious thinge to fynd evidences, and he will be thought to haue embezzled and purloyn’d them, he will bee thought to haue forged and counterfeated them, and he wilbe called to an account for them, how he came to them, and wt he
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meant to doe wth them: Soe to them whoe have temporall blessings wthout Spirrituall, they are but stollen blessings, for they belonge truelye to the Servaunts of god, they are but cou[n]terfeat blessings, they shall not p[u]rchase a minutts peace of conscience here nor a minuts refreshing to the Soule hereafter, and there must be a heavye account made for them, both how they were gott, and how they were imployed

But when a man hath a good title to heaven. then theis 1: Tim: 4: 8 are good evidences: for godlines hath a p[ro]mise of the liffe to come, and of the liffe that now is, and if wee spend any thing in mau[n]tenance of that title, give, or loose any thing for his glorye and making Math: 19: 29 sure this Salvac[i]on, we shall inheritt euerlasting life, saies the best suretye in the world, but wee shall not stay soe long for our bill of Charge wee shall haue a hundred fold in this liffe St August seemes loth to take Christ at that large word, hee seemes to thinke it to great vserye to take an hundred fold for that wch wee haue laid out for Christ and therefore he reads that place accipies septies tantum, he shall receive seven tymes as much in this liffe. But in both ye Evang: Math: and Mar: the overflowing bountye and retribuc[i]on of god is Soe expr[e]ssed Centuplum accipiet God repair’d Iob, soe, as he had beene impair’d God recompenc’d him in specie in the same kinde, as he had bene damnified, And Christs testifies of himselfe, that his com[m]ing to vs is, not onlye vt vitam habeatis, sed habeatis abundantius: more abundantlye, that is, as Divers of the Fathers interprett it, that you might have eternall liffe sealed to you, in the p[ro]speritye and abundancyes of this liffe I am the doore, saies Christ in ye same Chapter, wee must not thinke to flye over walls, by sudaine and vndeserved pr[e]ferrmts, nor to sapp, and vndermyne, and supplant others, wee must enter at that doore, by fayre and Christia[n] means: and then, by mee if any man enter, saies Christ, there he shalbe sav’d, theres a rich and an infallible inheritance, but before he come to that salvac[i]on, he shall goe in, and out, and find pasture, saies yt Text. now in heaven there is noe going in and out, but in his way to heaue[n], in this liffe he shall fynd his interest in the next convayed & seal’d to him in temporall blessings here. If Plato had found, & acknowledged a happines, in that, quod natus homo, that he was borne a ma[n] and not a beast Lactantius adds in Platoes behalfe, when he cites that place out of him, quod natus vir, that he was borne a man, & not a woman, If he found a further happines, quod Græcus, that he was borne a Grecian, and not a Barbarian, quod Atheniensis; that he was borne in the Towne, wch was the receptacle and dwelling of all wisdome, and quod tempore Socrates, and that he was borne in Socrates his tyme, that soe he might haue a good example as well as a good rule for his liffe. As all wee owe to God, an acknowledgmt of blessednes, that wee are borne in a Christian Church, in a reformed church, in a monarchye, in a Monarchye compos’d of Monarchyes, and in ye tyme of such a Monarchye, as is a peace-maker, and a peace-preserver, both at home and abroad, soe let all them whoe are borne of Nobillitye, or borne vp to Nobillitye, vpon the two fayre wings of meritt and of
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favour, all that are borne to ritches, and borne vp, and borne out by their ritches, all whom their industrye and wisedome, and vsefullnes to the state, hath or maye any waie pr[e]ferre, take heed of sep[ar]ating ye Autho[u]r and the meanes of sep[ar]ating God and the kinge, in the waies of favour, of sep[ar]ating god and their riches in the waies of p[u]rchase, of sep[ar]ating god and their wisedome, in the waies of pr[e]ferremt, but lett them allwayes descerne, and allwayes acknowledge, the hand of god, the Author in directing and p[ro]spering the hand of his Instrumt, in all theis temp[or]all thinges, and then theis temporall things, are trulye blessings vnto them, and they are trulye blessed in them

This was our first considerac[i]on, our first branch in this p[ar]te, In quibus there temporall blessings weare seales, & testimonyes of blessednes, The second is to what p[ar]ticuler evidence this seale is annexed in this text, vpon what thinges this blessednes is plac’d here: wch are all involv’d in this one litle particle, this monasillable, soe, blessed are they that are soe, that is, soe, as a prayer is made in the 3 former verses, that they might bee: Now as the maledicc[i]ons wch were threatned to David, were pr[e]sented to him by the p[ro]phetts in 3 formes, of Warre, of Famyne, of Pestelence, soe these blessings are comprised in those 3: verses, may well be reduced to 3: thinges contrarye to those 3: Maledicc[i]ons, to the blessing of peace, contrary to Davyds warre, that there may be noe inuasion, to ye blessing  verse 14: of plentye contrarye to Davyds Famyne, that our Barnes may abound verse 13:with all sortes of Corne, to the blessing of health, contrary to Davyds verse 12: distroying sicknes, that our Sonnes may grow vp as plants in yir youth

For the first temporall blessing of peace, we may consider pax the lovelines, the amiablenes of that if wee looke vppon the horro[u]r, and gastlynes of warre, either in effigie, in that picture of warre, wch is drawne in everye leaffe of our owne Cronicles, in the blood of soe many princes, and noble Familyes, or if wee looke vpon warr it selfe, at that distance, where it cannot hurt vs, as god had form[er]lye kindled it amongst o[u]r neighbors. and as he hath transfer’d it now to remot[e]r nac[i]ons, whilst wee enioye yet a Goshen, in the midst of all those Egipts, In all Cityes, disorderlye, and facinorous men covett to draw the[m]selues into the Skirts and Suburbs of those cities, that, soe, they may be the neerer the Spoyle, wch they make vpon passengers. In all kingdomes that border vpon other kingdomes, and in Ilands wch haue noe other border but the Sea, particuler men, whoe by dwelling in those skirts and borders, maye make their profitt of Spoyle, delight in hostilitye, and haue an adversnes and detestac[i]on of peace, but it is not soe  wth in: they who till the earth and breed vpp cattell, & imploye their industrye vpon gods creatures, according to gods ordinance, feele the benefitt, and appr[e]hend the Sweetnes, and praye for the continuance of peace

This is the blessing in wch god, soe very often expr[e]sses copia his gracious purpose vpon his people that he would give the[m] peace, and peace wth plentye. O that my people had hearkned vnto mee,Psal: 81: 13: et vlt saies god, I would soone haue humbled their enemyes (ther’es theire peace) and I would haue feed them with the fatt of wheat, and wth the honye out of the rocke, and ther’s their plentye: Persons whoe are pr[e]ferr’d for Service in the warr, prove often suspicious to the
[catchword(s): Prince:]

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Prince. Ioabs confidence in his owne merritt and service, made him inocent towards the kinge, and the king iealous of him. But noe man was more soddeinlye, nor more safelye pr[e]served then Ioseph, for his cou[n]saile to resist Penurye, and to pr[e]serue plentye and abundance wth in the Land. St Basill in a homilye wch he made in the adtyme of dearth and drought, in wch hee expr[e]sses himselfe wth as much elegancye as any where, (and every where I thinke wth as much as any man) where he saies, there was in the Skye, tristis seneritas et ipsa puritare molesta, that the ayre was the worse for being soe good, and the Fowler for being soe fayre, and where he inverts the wordes of o[u]r Saviour Messis magna Luk: 10: 2: operarii pauci: saies Ch, heres a great haruest but few work=men, but operarii multi messis parua, saies Basill, here are workeme[n] enough, but noe harvest to gather in that homilye, he notes a barrennes in that wch vs’d to be fruitefull, and a fruit fullnes in that wch vs’d to bee barren, Terra sterilis et aurum fæcundum, he prophesied of o[u]r tymes, when not onlye soe many familyes, haue left the Cou[n]trye for ye Cittye in their p[er]sons: but haue brought their lands into the Cittye. they haue brought all their evidences into Scriveners Shopps, and chang’d all their renuing of leases everye 7: yeares into renewing of bonds, every 6: monthes: they haue taken awaye to inflict a barrennes vpon land, and to extort a fruitfullnes from gold by vsurye. Monsters may begett by vnnaturall mixtures, but there is noe race, noe p[ro]pagac[i]on of monsters: mony may be raysed by this kingd of vse, but, non hærebit, it is the Sweate of other men, and it will not st.icke to thine heyre. Nay comonlye it bringes not that outward blessing of plentye wth it, for the most p[ar]te wee see noe men live, more penuriously, more sordidly, then theis men doe/

The third of theis temporall blessings is health, wth out wch both the other are noe more to anye man, then the rainebowe was to him, whoe was readye to drowne, quid mihi, si peream ego, saies he, what I am I the better, that god hath past his word, and sett to, his seale in the heavens, that he will drowne the world noe more, if I be drown’d my selfe? what’s all the peace of the world to mee, if I haue the rebellions, and earth quaks of shaking and burning feavers in my bodye! whats all the plenty of the world to mee, if aI have a languishing consumption in my blood and in my marrow? The heathens had a goddes to whom they attributed the care of the Body Deam Carnam: and wee that are Christians, acknowledge; that gods first care of man, was his bodye, he made that first, and his last care is reseru’d for the body too, at the resurecc[i]on, wch is principallye for the benefitt of the bodye. There is a care belongs to the health, and comlynes of the bodye. when the Romanes Cannonized Pallorem, & Febrim, palenes and fevers, and made them gods, they would as faine haue made them devills  if they durst, they worshipped them onlye because they stood in feare of them. Sickenes is a sword of gods, and health is his blessing. For when Ezechias had assurance enough that he shoulde recover and live, yet he had still a sence of miserye, in that he should Esay 38: not haue a p[er]fect state of health, what shall I saie, (saies he) I shall walke weakely all my yeares, in the bitternes of my soule. All temp[or]all blessings are infixed, and tastles, wthout health/

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Now the third p[ar]te branch of this part is the other In quibus, popul[us]not the thinges, but the p[er]sons, in whom theis three blessings are heere plac’d: and it is Beatus populus, when this blessednes reaches to all, dilates it selfe over all. when Davyd placed blessednes in one p[ar]ticular man, as he doth in the beginning of the first Psalme, Beatus vir, blessed is that man, there he pronounc[e]s that man blessed. Is he neither walke in the Counsaile of the wicked, nor stand in the waye of Sinners, nor sit in the seate of the Scornefull. If he doe not all, walke, and Stand, and sitt, in the pr[e]sence, and feare of god, he is not blessed: Soe if theis temporall blessings fall not vpon all in their p[ro]porc[i]ons, the people is not blessed, The Citye maye be blessed in the increase of accesse: & the Lawyer may be blessed in the increase of suits: and the marchant maye be blessed in the increase of the meanes of getting, if he come to gett aswell by taking as by trading: but if all be not blessed, ye  people is not blessed: for in fauorabilibus princeps & populæ, is a good rule in the lawe, in things beneficiall, the king is one of the people when god saies by Davyd lett all the people blesse the Lord, God doth not exemp kings from that Duetye, and when god saies by him too, god shall blesse all the people, god does not exempt nor exclude kings from yt benefitt, and therefore where such things as conduce, to the being, and the well being, to the substance and state, to the ceremony and maiestie of the Prince be not cheerefullye supplyed, and seasonablye administred, there that blessing is not fully fallen vpon then, blessed is that people that is soe, for the people are not soe, if the Prince be not soe. Nay the people are not blessed, if these blessings be not permanent: for it is not only they that are aliue now, that are the people, but the people is ye succession. If wee could imagine a blessing of health wthout permanencye, wee might call an intermitting ague, a good daye in a Fever, healthe if wee could imagine a blessing of plentye wthout p[er]manencye, wee might call a full Stomach, and a Surfett, though in a tyme of dearth, plentye: if wee could imagine a blessing of peace wthout p[er]manencye, wee might calls a nights sleepe, though in the midst of an army peace, But it is onlye p[ro]vision for the p[er]manencye and continuace, that makes theis blessings, blessings. To thinke of, to p[ro]vide against famyne, and sicknes, and warre, thats the blessing of plentye, and health, and peace, one of Chr principall titles was, that he was Princeps pacis Esay 9: and yet this Prince of peace saies non veni mittere pacem, I came not to bringe you peace, not such a peace, as should bring them securitye against all warre, If a Shipp take fire, though in the mydst of the Sea, it consumes Sooner, and more irrecoverablye, then, a thatched house vppon land: If god cast a firebrand of warre vpon a state accustomed to peace, it burnes the more desperatelye by theire former securitye. But here in our Text wee haue a religious kinge, Dauyde, that first prayes for theis blessings, (for the .3: former verses are a prayer) and then prayses god in the acknowledgmt of them, for this text is an acclamatorye, a gratulatorye gloryfying of god for them. and when theis two meete in the considerac[i]on of temporall bessings, a religious care for them, a religious confessing of them, prayer to god for the getting, prayse to god for the having, blessed is yt people, that is, head, and members. Prince and Subiect, present & future
[fol. 82v]
people, that are soe, Soe blessed, soe thankfull for their blessings/

2: parte Wee come nowe at Dectram dextra, to ye right blessednes in the right sence, and interpr[e]tac[i]on of theis wordes, to spirrituall blessednes, to the blessednes of the Soule Estne deo Cura de bobus, is the 1: Cor: 9: 9:Apostles question! and his answere is pregnantlye implyed. God hath care of Beasts: but yet God cares more for one Soule, then for those Math: 5: 2000 Hoggs which he suffered to perrish in the Sea, when that man was dispossed A drame of Spirrituall is worth infinite talents of temporall here then in this spirrituall blessednes (as wee did in the former) wee shall looke; first, quid beatitudo. what it is, and then In quibus in what it is plac’d here, vt deus erorum sit dominus, that yr god be the lord, and lastlye the extent of it, that all people bee made p[ar]takers of this spirrituall blessednes

Beatitudo This blessednes then you see is plac’d last in the text, not that it cannot be had till o[u]r end, till the next liffe. In this case yenemo ante obitum failes, for it is in this liffe that wee must fynd our god to be the Lord, or els, if wee knowe not that here, we shall meete his nescio vos, he will not knowe vs, but it is plac’d last, because it is the waightiest and the vttermost degree of blessednes, wch can bee had, to haue the Lord for our God, Consider the making vp of a naturall man, and you shall see that he is a convenient type of a spirrituall man too: First in a naturall man wee conceive there is a Soule of vegetac[i]on, and of grouth, and secondlye a soule of motion and of sence, and Thirdlye a Soule of Reason and vnderstanding, an im[m]ortall soule And the two first Soules of vegetac[i]on and of sence, we conceive to arise out of the temperament and good disposic[i]on of the substance of wch that man is made, they arise out of man himselfe: but the last Soule, the p[er]fect and im[m]ortall Soule, that is imediatlye infus’d by god. Consider the blessednes of this Text in such degrees, in such p[ro]porc[i]ons, first god blesses a man wth ritches, there’s his soule of vegetac[i]on and grouth, by that he growes in estimac[i]on and in one kinde of true abilitye to p[ro]duce good fruits, for he hath where with all: And then god gives this rich man, the blessing of vnderstanding his riches, how to imploye them according to those morall & civill dutyes wch app[er]taine vnto him, and there’s his Soule of sence: for many rich men haue not this sence, many rich men vnderstand their owne riches noe more, then the Acornes Oakes of the Forrest doe their owne Acornes. But last of all god gives him the blessings of discerning the mercye and the p[u]rpose of god in giving him theis temporall blessings, and there’s his im[m]ortall Soule, Now for ye riches them selves  (wch is his first Soule he maye haue them Extraduce by devoluc[i]on from his parents: and the civill wisedome how to gou[er]ne his riches, where to purchase where to sell, where to give, where to take (wch is his second soule) this he may haue by his owne acquisic[i]on and experience, and conversac[i]on: but the im[m]ortall Soule, that is, the deserning of gods Image, in euery peece, and of ye seale of gods love in every temporall blessing, this is infus’d from god alone, and arises neither from parents, nor the wisedome of this world,
[catchword(s): howe]

[fol. 83r]
how worldlye wisse soever wee bee, in the governing of our estate, And this the p[ro]phett may very well seeme to have intimated, when he sayes, the generac[i]on of the righteous shalbe blessed, here is a p[er]manent Psal: 112: 1: blessednes to the generac[i]on wherein is it expr[e]ssed! thus, riches and treasure shall be in his house, and his righteousnes endureth for ever: he doth not saye that Symony, or Vsurye, or extorc[i]on shall be in his # house, for riches got soe are not treasure: nor he does not saye yt riches well gott and wch are trulye a blessing, shall endure for ever, the last Soule, the imortall soule endures for ever The, but his righteousnes shall endure for ever, the last Soule, the im[m]ortall soule endures forever The blessednes of having studied, and learnt and preachtised ye knowledge of gods purpose in temporall blessings, this blessednes shall endure for ever: when thou shalt turne from thy left to thy right syde vpon thy death bed, from all hono[u]r and riches of this world, to breath thy soule into his hands whoe gave it, this righteousnes, this good conscience shall endure then, and then accompany thee, and when thine eyes are clos’d, and in the twinckling of his eye, who clos’d thine, thy soule shall be gone an infinite way from this hono[u]r, and theis riches, this righteousnes, this good conscience shall endure then, and meete thee in the gates of heaven and this is soe much of that righteousnes, as is expr[e]ss’d in this Text, because this is the roote of all, that o[u]r god be the Lord

In wch, First wee must propose a god, that there is one, In quib[us] and then appropriate this god to our selves, that he be our god, and lastlye be sure, that wee have the right god, that our God be the Lord for, for the first, he that enterprises any thinge, seeks any thinge, possesses any thinge, wthout recou[r]se to god, wthout acknowledging god in that acc[i]on, he is for that p[ar]ticuler an Atheist, he is wthout god in that, and if he doe soe in most of his acc[i]ons he is for the most p[ar]te an Atheist, If he be an Atheist every where, but in his Catechisme, if onlye then he confesse a god, when he is asked, dost thou beleive that there is a god! and never confesse him, never consider him in his acc[i]ons it shall doe him noe good, to saye at the last daye, that he was noe speculative Atheist, he never thought in his harte that there was noe god, if he livd a practique Atheist, proceeded in all his acc[i]ons wthout any considerac[i]on of him. But accustome thy selfe to find the pr[e]sence of god in all thy gettings, in all thy pr[e]ferremts, in all thy studdyes, and he will be aboundantly sufficient to thee for all quantum libit sir auarus, saies stAugus: sufficit tibi deus, be as covetous as thou wilt, be as ambitious as thou canst, the more the better, god is treasure, god is hono[u]r enough for thee Avaritia terram quærit. saies the same Father, adde et cœlum, wouldst thou have all this world, wouldst thou have all the next world too, Plus est qui fecit cœlum et terram, he that made heaven and earth, is more then all that, and thou maiest haue all him

And this appropriates him soe neere to vs, as that he Noster is thereby Deus noster for, it is not enough to finde Deum, a god, a great and incompr[e]hensible power, that sitts, in luce, in light:
[fol. 83v]
but in luce inaccessibili, a light that wee cannot comprehend: a god that enioyes his owne eternitye, his owne peace, his owne blessednes, but respects not vs, reflects not vpon vs, com[m]unicates nothing to vs: but it is a god, that is Deus noster, ours, and wee are his creatures, ours, as wee are like him, made to his Image, ours, as he is like vs, in assuming our nature, o[u]rs, as he hath descended to vs in his incarnac[i]on, and o[u]rs, as wee are ascended wth him in his glorificac[i]on: Soe that we doe not consider god, as o[u]r god, except wee come to the co[n]siderac[i]on of god in Christ, God and man. It is not enough to finde Deum, a god in generall, nor to finde deum meum a god, soe p[ar]ticulerly my god, as that he is a god of my making. that I should seeke god by anye other moc[i]ons, or know god by any other moc[i]ons, or worshipp god in any other fashions, then the true Church of god doth, for there hee is Deus noster, as he is receiv’d in the vnanime consent of the Catholique Church. Sectes are not bodyes they are but rotten boughes, gangre[n]d limmes, fragmentarye chippes, blowne of by their owne Spirrit of tribulencye, fallen of by the waight of their owne pride, or hewen of by the excommunicac[i]ons and censures of the Church. Sects are not bodyes, for there is nihil nostrum, nothing in com[m]on amongst them, nothing that goes through them all: all is singuler, all is meum, & tuu[m], my spirritt, and thy Spirritt, my opynion, and thy opynion, my god, and thy god, noe such appr[e]henc[i]on, noe such worshipp of god, as the whole Church hath ever more beene acquainted wthall, and contented wth. It is true that every man must appropriate god soe narrowly as to fynd him to be deum suum, his god, that all the p[ro]mises of ye Prophetts, and all the p[er]formancs of the gospell, all yt Christ Iesus said and did, and suffered, belongs to him, and his soule! but yet god is deus meus, as he is deus noster, my god as he is o[u]r god, as I am a p[ar]te of that Church wth wch he hath p[ro]mised to be till the end of the world, and as I am an obedient Sonne of that Mother, whoe is the Spouse, of Christ Iesus. For, as St August saies, of yt petic[i]on give vs this daye o[u]r Daylye bread, vnde dicimus da nostrum! how come wee to aske that, wch is ours! quomodo n[ost]ru[m], quomodo da, if we be put to aske it, whye doe wee call it ours? and then answeares him selfe Tuum confitendo non eris ingratus, it is a thankfull p[ar]te, to confesse that thou hast seene, that thou hast received some, and then ab illo petendo non eris vacuus, it is a wise, and p[ro]vident p[ar]te, to aske more of him, whose store is inexhaustible: soe, if I seeke god as he is deus meus, as his spirritt workes in mee, and thankfully acknowledge that, non sum ingratus, but if I derive this pipe from the Cesterne, this deus meus, from deus noster, my acknowledge, and sence of god, from, that knowledge wch is communicated by his Church in the preaching of his word, in the administrac[i]on of his sacramts, in those other meanes wch he hath instituted in his Church for the assistance and rep[ar]ac[i]on of my Soule, that way non ero vacuus. I shall haue a fuller satisfacc[i]on, a more abundant refecc[i]on, then if I relye vpo[n] my private inspyrac[i]ons: for there he is deus noster/

Dominus Now as wee are thus to acknowledge a god, and thus to
[fol. 84r]
appropriate that god, soe must wee be sure to conferre this honour vpon the right god, vpon him whoe is the Lord, Now this name of god wch is translated the Lord here, is not the name of god wch pr[e]sents him wth relac[i]on to his creatures: for, soe it is a problematicall, a disputable thinge, whether god could be called the Lord, before there were any creatures. Turtullian denyes absolutelye that he could be called Lord, till then, St Aust is more modest, he saies non audeo dicere, I dare not saye, that he was not, but he does not affirme that he was howsoever the name here, is not the name of relac[i]on, but it is the name of his essence, of his eternitye, that name, wch of late hath beene ordinarilye cald Iehouah, soe that wee are not to trust in thos Lords whose breath is in their nostrells, as the Prophet saies, for wherein Esay: 2: vlt are they to be esteemed, saies hee, wee are lesse to trust in them, whose breath was never in their nostrells, such imaginarye Saints as are soe farre from hearing vs in heaven, as that they are not there, and soe farre from being there, as that they were never heere: soe farre from being Saints, as that they were never men, but are eith[e]r fabulous illuc[i]ons, or at least, but symbolicall and allegoricall alluc[i]ons. Our lord, is the Lord of liffe, and beeing: who gave vs not onlye a well being in this liffe (for that other Lords can pr[e]tend to doe, and doe indeed, by pr[e]ferremts here) nor a begin[n]ing of a temporary being in this liffe, (for that our parents pr[e]tend, and pr[e]tend truelye to haue done) nor onlye an enlarging of our being in this life, (for that the kinge can doe by a p[ar]don, and the Phisitians by a Cordiall) but he hath given vs an imortall being, wch neither our parents began in vs, nor great p[er]sons can advance for vs, nor any Prince can take from vs. This is the Lord in this place, this is Iehouah, and Germen Iehoua the Lord, and the offspring of the Lord, and none is ye Offspringe of god, but god, that is the Sonne and the holy Ghost soe that this p[er]fect blessednes consists in this, the true knowledge, and worshipp of the Trynitye/

And this blessing, that is, the true religion and p[ro]fession populus of Christ Iesus, is to be vpon all the people, wch is our last considerac[i]on. Blessed is the nation, whose God is the Lord, and ye people psal: 33: 12: whom he hath chosen for his inheritau[n]ce And here againe (as in ye former considerac[i]on of temporall blessings) the people includes both Prince and people, and then, the blessing consists, in this, that both Prince and people be sincerelye affected to the true religion, and then, the people included all the people, and soe, the blessinge consists in this, that there be an vnaminitye, a consent in all, in matter of religion: And lastlye, the people includes the future people, and there the blessing consists in this, that o[u]r posteritye maye enioye the same puritye of religion that wee doe. The first tentac[i]on that fell amongst the Apostles carried away one of them: Iudas was transported wth the tentac[i]on of monye, and how much! for 30: peeces and in all likehood he might haue made more profitt then that, out of the privye purse. The first tentac[i]on carried one. but the first p[er]secuc[i]on carried away 9 wher[e] Christ
[fol. 84v]
was appr[e]hended none was left but 2: and of one of them two stIerome saies, vtinam fugisset, et non negasset Christum I would Peter had fled too, and not scandalized the cause more by his staye, in denying his Mar: for a man maye staye in the outward p[ro]fession of the true religion, wth such p[u]rposes, and to such ends, as he maye there by damnifye the cause more, and damnifye his owne Soule more, then if he went awaye to that religion, to wch his conscience, (thoughe ill rectifyed) directs him. Now though when such tentac[i]ons, and such p[er]secuc[i]ons doe come, the wordes of our Savio[u]r Christ will allwayes Luk: 12: 32: be true, feare not litle flocke, for it is gods pleasure to giue you the kingdome though god can laye vpp his Seed corne in any litle corner, yet the blessing intended here, is not in that litle Seed corner, nor in the corner, but in the plentye, when all the people are blessed, and the blessed spirritt blowes where he will, and noe dore, nor windowe is shutt against him. And therefore lett all vs blesse god, for that great blessing to vs, in giving vs such Princes, as make it there care, ne bona caduca sint, ne mala recidiua, that that blessednes wch wee enioye by them may nev[e]r departe from vs, that those miseryes wch wee felt before them, may never returne to vs. Allmightie god make allwaies to vs all, prince and people, theis temporall blessings wch wee enioye nowe, peace, and plentye, and health, seales of his spirrituall blessings: and that spirrituall blessednes wch wee enioye nowe, the p[ro]fession of the onlye true religion, a seale of it selfe, and a Seale of those eternall blessings wch the Lord, the righteous Iudge, hath laid vpp for his, in that kingdome, wch his Sonne, our Saviour hath purchas’d for vs, wth the inestimable price of his incorruptible blood. In wch glorious Sonne of God etc/

of Doctor Dunns sermo[n]
at Whit-hall before the
the thirtyeth of Aprill


PublisherThe Oxford Edition of the Sermons of John Donne
General Editor: Peter McCullough
Funder: Arts and Humanities Research Council
Availability: This XML document is published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 License.


Transcription of sermons 1-15 by Emma Rhatigan.

Transcription of sermon 16 by Mary Morrissey

Transcription proofread by Peter McCullough (sermon 10), Mary Morrissey (16), Phil West (2, 6, 12), Hugh Adlington (5, 9, 11, 13), and Sebastiaan Verweij (1, 3, 4, 7, 8, 12, 14, 15, 16).

Manuscript description by Mary Morrissey.

Transcription coded by Sebastiaan Verweij.


Institution: Bodleian Library, Oxford
Shelfmark: MS Eng. th. c. 71
OESJD siglum: M


Item no: 1
Locus: ff. 53r-59v
Title: The Text Remember nowe thy Creator in the dayes of thy youthe 12:1: Ecclesiastes
Incipit: Wee may consider Two greate
Explicit: meete and never parte, but here wee must
Bibliography: OESJD Vol. IV.10; P&S Vol. II.11

Item no: 2
Locus: ff. 60r-65r
Title: The Text Father forgiue them for they knowe not what they doe, Luke 23:34:/
Incipit: The word of God is either
Explicit: Father which art in heauen &c.
Final Rubric: finis
Bibliography: OESJD Vol. VI.8; P&S Vol. V.12

Item no: 3
Locus: ff. 67r-72v
Title: The Text The Father iudgeth noe man But hath committed all Judgment to the Sonne John 5:22:
Incipit: When our Sauiour Christ forbidds
Explicit: to you when for your sakes, he committed all Judgmt to the Sonne/
Final Rubric: Finis of the First Sermo[n] prached at Lincolnes Inn in ye forenoo[n]e by Doc: Dunn on Sunday 30:Ja:1619
Bibliography: OESJD Vol. IV.11; P&S Vol. II.15

Item no: 4
Locus: ff. 72v-76v
Title: The Text Iuidge noe man John 8.15
Incipit: The Riuers of paradice did not all
Explicit: yet, The Sonne iudgeth noe man
Final Rubric: Finis of the second Sermon preached at lincolnes In the afternoone by Doc: Dunn on Sunday 30:Jan:1619
Bibliography: OESJD Vol. IV.12; P&S Vol. II.16

Item no: 5
Locus: ff. 78r-84v
Title: The Text Blessed are the people that bee soe yea blessed are the people whose God is the Lorde Psale 144:15:
Incipit: The first parte of this Text hath re:
Explicit: of his incorruptible blood. In wch glorious Sonne of God &c.
Final Rubric: Finis of Doctor Dunns sermo[n] preach'd at Wit-hall before the kinge the thirtyeth of Aprill 1620
Bibliography: OESJD Vol. II.5; P&S Vol. III.9

Item no: 6
Locus: ff. 86v-93v
Title: The Text Whosoeuer shall fall on this Stone shalbe broken, But on whom Soeuer it shall fall it will grinde him to powder Math: 21:44
Incipit: Allmightie God made us for
Explicit: manifest vnto vs To whome wth blessed Spirritt &c
Final Rubric: Finis of a Sermon of docter Donne preach'd at ye Cockpit
Bibliography: OESJD Vol. VI.1; P&S Vol. II.8

Item no: 7
Locus: ff. 95r-101v
Title: The Text Lorde all my desire is before thee and my Groninge is not hid from thee Psal:38:9:
Incipit: The wole Psalme
Explicit: but ordained by the Church
Bibliography: OESJD Vol. IV.8; P&S Vol. II.6

Item no: 8
Locus: ff. 103r-109r
Title: The Text Whoe now reioyce in my sufrings for you and fill vp that wch is behinde of the Afflictions of Christ in my fleshe for his bodyes sake which is the Church Colos:1:24
Incipit: Wee are to enter into the
Explicit: and Christ Jesus a Crowne of Everlasting glorye to vs all
Final Rubric: Amen
Bibliography: OESJD Vol. IV.2; P&S Vol. III.16

Item no: 9
Locus: ff. 110r-115r
Title: The Text Woe vnto you that desire the daye of the
Incipit: For the presenting of the woes and Iudgmts of God
Explicit: To which glorious sonne of God &c
Final Rubric: Finis of Doc: Donns Sermon at white hall before the kinge the 30: of March 1619
Bibliography: OESJD Vol. II.2; P&S II.18

Item no: 10
Locus: ff. 116r-122r
Title: The Text I loue them that loue mee & they that seek me earlye shall finde mee Pro:8:17:
Incipit: As the Prophetts and other secretaryes of the holye
Explicit: incoruptible bloode
Final Rubric: In whom &c/
Bibliography: OESJD Vol. I.4; P&S Vol. I.5

Item no: 11
Locus: ff. 123r-129r
Title: The Text And without Contruersye greate is the Mistery of Godlynes God was manifest in the Fleshe: Iustifyed in the Spirit: Seene of Angles: peached vnto ye Gentils: Beleeued on in the worlde: receyued vp into Glorye 1:Timo:3:16:
Incipit: This is no Text for an hour glasse: If god woud
Explicit: blood: To which glorious Sonne of God &c
Final Rubric: Finis of Doc: Donns Sermon at Whithall before the kinge ye 16: February 1620
Bibliography: OESJD Vol. II.6; P&S Vol. III.10

Item no: 12
Locus: ff. 130r-137v
Title: The Text Hee that beleeuth not shalbe damned Mar:16:16
Incipit: The first words that are recorded in the
Explicit: God shall himselfe in an everlasting presence & Fruition./ Amen./
Final Rubric: Finis of A Sermon of Do: Duns lincolns I
Bibliography: OESJD Vol. VI.9; P&S Vol. V.13

Item no: 13
Locus: ff. 139r-145r
Title: The Text The last Enemye that shall be distroyed is Deathe 1:Cor:15:26:
Incipit: This is a Text of the Resurrection, and tis not
Explicit: Consummacion both in Bodye and Soule in his everlasting glorye Amen
Final Rubric: Finis of D: Dunn before the kinge on Frydaye before lent 1620
Bibliography: OESJD Vol. II.8; P&S Vol. IV.1

Item no: 14
Locus: ff. 146r-149v
Title: The Text And the Lord says It is not good for the man should be alone I will make him a helpe meete for him Gene:2:18:
Incipit: In the Creation of the world when God had
Explicit: therefore this be enough, For ye explicacion, and applycacion of these words
Final Rubric: Finis of a Sermon preach'd by D:Donn at S Francis Nethersoles marriage
Bibliography: OESJD Vol. VII.1; P&S Vol. II.17

Item no: 15
Locus: ff. 150r-155v
Title: The Text And I will marrye thee vnto mee for euer Hos:2:19:
Incipit: The word wch is the Kinge vpon wch
Explicit: his incorruptible bloude to whom &c
Final Rubric: Finis of a Sermon preach'd at St Clements danes by D:Dunn at Mr Washingto[n]s marriage
Bibliography: OESJD Vol. VII.2; P&S Vol. III.11

Item no: 16
Locus: ff. 156r-171r
Title: The Text For God who Commaunded light to shine out of darknes, hath shined in our hartes to giue the light of ye knowledge of the glory of God in ye face of Je: Christ 2:Cor:1:6:
Incipit: The First Booke of ye Bible begins wth the
Explicit: of God in the face of Jesus Christ
Final Rubric: Finis of Doc:Donns Sermo[n] at ye Spitle on Easte Mu[n]day 1622:
Bibliography: OESJD Vol. VIII.2; P&S Vol. IV.3


Material: Paper, folio, i + 177 leaves (1 stub, f. 59b). 313 X 210 mm.
Foliation: Foliation in pencil consecutively. The final sermon is individually paginated in ink, not by the main scribe.
Collation: The volume is too tightly bound to provide collation.
Condition: The volume is in excellent condition.


The hand which transcribed the sermons in this manuscript is almost certainly that of a professional scribe. This is a very neat, very consistent hand. The letters are small (minims are approx. 2mm high, capitals and letters with ascenders only approx. 3-4 mm high); this allows the scribe to fit approx. 50 lines of text within the writing block. The scribe uses a predominantly secretary script, with some italic features. The scribe also uses a kind of non-cursive print-hand, with some italic forms but less pronounced in its use of that script that write the passages in italic. The distinction between this and the italic scripts can be harder to discern. Punctuation is sparse, consisting mostly of commas and full-stops, with virgules sometimes marking the end of a paragraph. Virgules are not easily distinguished from commas, especially mid-paragraph. On the whole, what may be rather short virgules have been transcribed as commas. A capital often indicates the beginning of a new sentence in the absence of a full-stop, or following a comma. The Merton scribe occasionally writes square brackets. Since these are also used for editorial interventions in the text, in transcription they are replaced with parentheses (see for instance ff. 150v, 151r). Abbreviation is typical for a hand of this time. The scribe commonly employs word-final superscript 'r' with an abbreviation mark. These letters have mostly been expanded ('ur', 'er'), except where no vowel could have been implied (although the same superscript 'r' was still used by the scribe): especially in 'nor' and 'for'. Catchwords are used throughout, and these have only been indicated when the catchword is different from the word following on the next page, in terms of spelling, punctuation, or capitalisation.

The rubricator may be distinguished from the main scribe. It is clear that marginal notes were added in pencil first, and then re-done in red ink. In some cases, the pencil is still visible, and in a couple of instances, the pencil has not been inked over (see esp. f. 163v, marginal note 'Nicephor’. In one case, in the margin of f. 169r, the rubricated marginal note reads ‘Nariani’. This is presumably a mistake for ‘Nazianzen’ (or a shortened form thereof). The underlying pencil mark is not visible, but it is difficult to believe that a scribe who had written ‘Nazianzen’ so many times in this manuscript would not have recognised the word when rubricating the marginal notes. This may indicate that the rubricator did his work on the text after the scribe had completed his work. This might explain some of the inconsistencies in the rubrication throughout the manuscript.

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