[p. 51] The Sermon in the Eueninge
of the same day./
John.8.15. I Iudge no Man./
The Riuers of Paradice did not all runne one way, and yet they flowed from one head; The sentences of scripture flowe all from one head, from the holie ghost, and yet they seeme to present diuers senses, and to admitt diuers interpretations. In such an apparance doth this text differ from that which I handled in the forenoone. And as heretofore I found it a vsefull, and acceptable labour, to imploy our Euening excercises vppon the vindicating of some such places of Scripture as our Aduersaries of the Roman Church had detorted in some point of Controuersie betweene them, and vs, and restoring those places to ye true sense (which course I held constantlie for one whole yeare) so I think it a vsefull, and acceptable labour now to imploy for a tyme those evening excercises, to reconcile some such place of scripture as may at first sight seeme to differ from one another; In the morning wee saw how Christ iudged all; Nowe wee are to see how hee judges none; I judge no Man./
To come then to these present words, Here wee haue the same person Christ Iesus, And hath not hee the same office, Is not hee Iudge? Certainly though hee retained all his other Offices; Though hee bee the Redeemer, and haue shed bloud in value, satisfaction for all our sinnes; Though hee bee our [p. 52] Aduocate and plead for vs in heauen, and present our euidence to that Kingdome, written in his blood, seald’ in his wounds yet if hee be not our Iudge wee cannot stand in Iudgement; shall hee been our Iudge, and is hee not our Iudge yet? long, long before wee were hee was our Iudge, at the separation of the Elect and Reprobate, in Gods eternall decree. was hee our Iudge then, and is hee not so still? still he is present in his Church, and cleeres vs in all scruples, rectifies vs in all errours, erects vs in all deiections of spiritt, pronounces peace and reconciliation in all apprehensions of his Iudgments by his word, and his sacraments, was hee, and is hee, and shall hee Job 19.24 not bee our Iudge still. I am sure my Redeemer liueth, and hee shall stand the last on earth. So that Christ Iesus is the same to day, and yesterday, and foreuer, before the world begun, and world without end. Sicut erat in principio, as hee was in the beginning, hee is, and euer shalbee our Iudge.
Diuisio So that then these words are not De tempore, but De modo, there was neuer any time, when Christ was not Iudge, but there were some manner of Iudgements, which Christ did neuer exercise, and Christ had no commission which hee did not execute for hee did all his Fathers will: 1 In sæcularibus, in Ciuill or Criminall businesses, which belong meerly to ye Iudicators, and congnisance of this world. Iudicat neminem, Christ iudges no man. 2 Secondly secundum carnem, so that they to whom Christ spoke this, who iudged (as himself saies here) according vnto fleshlie affections, Iudicat neminem, hee iudges no man, and 3ly ad internetionem, [p. 53] So as that vpon that Iudgment a man should despaire of any reconciliation, any redintegration with God againe and be without hope of pardon, or remission of sinnes in this world, Iudicat neminem, Hee iudges no man; 1 Christ vsurps vpon no mans Iurisdiction, that were against Iustice, 2 Christ imputes no false things to any man, that were against Charitie, 3 Christ induces no man to desperation, that were against faith, and against Iustice, Against Charitie, against Faith Iudicat neminem./
1. Part First then, Christ iudges not in secular iudgements, And wee note his abstinence therein, first in ciuill matters, when non secularia one of the company said to him, Master bid my Brother diuide Luke.12.14. the Inheritance with mee, as St August: saies, The Plaintiff thought his cause to be iust, And hee thought Christ to bee a competent Iudge in the cause, and yet Christ declines the iudgement, disauowes the authoritie, and hee answeres, Homo, guis me constituit Iudicem; Man, who made mee a Iudge betweene you; To that generall, wch. wee had in ye morning Omne Iudicium, the Sonne hath all Iudgement. Here is an exception of the same Iudges owne making, for in secular
b Judgments, nemo constituit, hee had no commission, and therfore Iudicat neminem, hee iudges no man, Hee forbore in ciuill matters too, for when the woman taken in adultery was brought before him hee condemned her not, it is true hee absolu’d her not, the euidence was pregnant against her but hee condemned her not, hee vndertooke no office of a Iudge but a sweet, and spirituall Councellor, Goe, and sinn no more [p. 54] for this was his Element, his Tribunall. When then Christ saies of himselfe, with such a pregnant negatiue, Quis me constituit Iudicem, may not wee say so too, to his pretended Vicar the B. of Rome, Quis te? who made you Iudge of Kinges that you should depose them in criminall causes? Or who made you Proprietarie of Kingdomes, that you should dispose of them as of ciuill Inheritances? when to countenance such pretences they detort places of scripture, not only perversly, but sence sleslie, blasphemously, ridiculously, (as ridiculouslie as in their Pasquills) when in an vndiscreete shamelesnes to make their power greater then it is they make their fault greater then it is too, and fill their Histories wth. examples of Kings deposed by Popes, which in truth were not deposed by them; for in that they are more innocent then they will confesse themselues to bee, when some of their Authors say, that the primitiue Church abstained from deposing ye Emperours, onlie because shee was not strong enough to doe it. when some of them say, That all the Christian Kingdomes of the Earth may fall into the Church of Rome by fault in those Princes, when some of them say, that, De facto, The Pope hath allreadie a good title to euerie Christian Kingdome, when some of them say, that the world will neuer bee well gouerned till the Pope put himselfe in possession of all (all wch seuerall propositions are in seuerall Authors of good reputation amongst them) will he not indure Christs owne question, Quis te constituit? who made you Iudge of all this? If they say Christ did; Did he in his Doctrine, it is hard to pretend yt, [p. 55] for such an institution as that must haue very cleere, uery pregnant words to carrie it? did hee do it by his example and practise? wee see hee abstain’d in criminall causes. when they come to their last shift, that is, that Christ did excercise Iudiciary authoritie, when hee whipped the Marchants out of the Temple; when hee cursed the figg-tree, and damnified the Owner thereof, and when hee destroyed the heard of swine (for there, say they, the Deuill was the executioner, Christ was the Iudge) To all these, and such as these it is enough to say, All these were miraculous, and not ordinarie: And though it might seeme halfe a miracle how that Barnard ye pope should excercise so much autoritie as hee hath done ouer the world, yet when wee looke neere, and see his meanes, that hee hath done all this by massacres of millions, by wthdrawing subiects from their alleageance by assassinating, and murthering of Princes, when wee know that miracles are wthout meanes, and wee see the meanes of his proceedings, the miracle ceases howsoeuer. That Bishop, as Christ Vicar can claime noe other power then was ordinary in Christ, and so excercised by Christ, And soe, Iudicauit neminem, in secular Iudgement Christ iudges no man, and therfore that Bishopp as Vicar should not.
2. parte Detractio Secondly; Christ Iudges no man by Calumny, by imputing or laying false aspersions vpon him, nor truth’s extrajudicially, for that’s a degree of Calumny, wee enter into a large feilde when wee goe about to speake against Calumny, and slaunder and detraction, So large a feild, as that wee may fight out the [p. 56] least drop of bloud, preach out the last gaspe of our breath before wee ouercome it. Those to whome Christ spoke here were such as gaue peruerse Iudgements, Calumniating censures vpon him, and soe hee iudges no man, wee need not insist vpon that, for it is, Manifestè verum. But that wee may see our danger, and our dutie what calumny is, and soe how to auoid it actiuely, and how to beare it passiuely, I must by your leaue stop a litle vppon it. When then wee would present vnto you that monster slander, and Calumny, though it bee hard to bring it within anie compasse of a Diuision, yet to take the largenes of the schole, and say that euery Calumny is either direct, or indirect, that will comprehend all, and then a direct Calumny will haue three branches, either to say a false, and uniust imputation, or els to aggrauate a iust imputation with vnnecessarie, but heauie circumstances, or thirdly to reueale a fault, which in it selfe was secrett, and I by no duty bound to discouer it; And then the indirect Calumny will haue three branches too, either to denie expresly some good that is in another, or to smother it in silence, when any testmonie were due to him, and might aduantage him: Or lastly to diminish his good parts, and say they are well, but yet not such as you would esteeme them to bee; Collect them againe (for that’s all that wee shalbee able to doe) That hee is a Calumniator directlie, that imputes a false crime, that aggrauates a true crime, that discouers any crime extraiudicially: That he is an indirect Calumniator, That denies another mans sufficiencies, that conceales them, that diminishes them. Take [p. 57] Serm. 24. in Cant. in some of St Bernards examples of these rules, That it is calumnie to say, Doleo vehementer, I am sorry at ye hart for such a man, because I loue him, but I could neuer drawe him from such, or such a vice. Or to say Per me nunguam innotuisset, I should neuer haue spoken of it, yet since all the world talkes of it, the truth must not bee disguised, And so take occasion to discouer a fault wch. nobody knew before, And thereby as the same Father saies, Cum grauitate et tarditate aggredj maledictionem, to cutt a mans throat grauely and soberly, and so much the more perswasiuely because hee seemes, and pretends to do it all against his will; This being the rule, and this being the example, who amongst vs is free from the passiue calumny, who amongst vs hath not some other man calumniated? Nay who is free from the actiue part? Wch. of vs hath not in some of these degrees calumniated some other? But those whome Christ makes his exception heere that hee iudges no man, as they Iudge, were such Calumniators Psal. 50.20 as Dauid speakes of Sedes aduersus fratrem tuum, et loqueris contra eum, Thou sittest, and speakest against they neighbour as St. August: notes vppon that place, Non transitoriè, non surreptionis passione, sed guasi ad hoc vacans; not by chance and vnawares; not in passion, because hee had offended thee, not for companie, because thou wouldst bee of their mindes, but as though thy profession would beare thee out in it, to leaue the Cause, and lay aspersions vpon the person, So thou Psal. 53.4 art a Calumniator, They eat vp my people as bread, as [p. 58] Dauid saies in Gods person, And vppon those words of the same Prophet, saies the same Father, De cæteris, when wee eate of any thing els, wee tast of this dish, and wee tast of that, Non semper hoc olus, wee do not allwaies eate one sallett, one meate, one kind of fruit, sed semper panem, whatsoeuer wee eat els wee allwayes eate bread. Howsoeuer they imploy’d their thoughts or their witts otherwise, it was euer one excercise of them to calumniat Christ Iesus, and in that kind of calumny, wch is the bitterest of all, they abounded most, wch is in scorne, and derision, Dauid, and Iob, who were slander proof in a good measure, yet euery where complaine passionatlie, that they were made a scorne, that the witts made libells, that Drunkards sung songs, that fooles, and children of fooles derided them, And when his soule ^as Saul^ was in his last, and worst agonie, and had abandon’d 1 Cro: 10.4. himselfe to a present death, and pray’d his Armor-bearer to kill him, it was not because the vncircumcis’d should not kill him (for he desired death, and hee had their deadly arrowes allreadie in his bosome) but it was (as is expressed there) least ye vncircumcised should come, and abuse him; hee was afraid of scorne when hee had but a few minutes to liue./
Since then Christ iudges no man, as they did, secundum Carnem eius, according to the outward apparance; for they thought no better of Christ then hee seem’d to bee (as some Fathers take that phrase), nor secundum carnem suam, according to his owne fleshly passions (as some others take it) Iudge not you so neither Mat.7.1. first Iudge not, that yee bee not iudged, that is, as Ambrose interprets it well enough, Nolite iudicare de judicijs Dej, when [p. 59] you see Gods Iudgements fall vppon a man, when you see the Tower of Silo fall vppon a man, Do not you iudge that that man had sinn’d more then you; when you see another borne blind Do not you thinke that hee, or his Father had sinn’d, and that you only are deriu’d from a pure generation, especiallie, Non maledicas surdo, speake not euill of the deafe, that heares not, that Leuit. 19.14 is, as Gregorie interprets it (if not literally, yet appliably, and usefullie) Calumniat not him who is absent, and cannot defende himself. It is the Deuills office to bee Accusator fratrum, Leuit. 19.16 And though god goe not say in the lawe, non erit, yet he saies, Non erit Criminator, it is plainly there shalbee no Informer (for as wee dispute, and for the most part affirme in the schoole, that though wee could, wee might destroy no intire species of those Creatures which God made at first, though it be a Tyger, or a Viper, because this were to take away our linck of Gods chaine, out of the world, So such Vermine as Informers may not, for some good vse that there is of them, bee taken away) though it bee not, Non erit, there shalbe none, yet it is at least by way of good counsaile to thee, Non eris, though shalt not bee the man, thou shalt not bee the Informer, and for resisting those that are wee are bound not only not to harme our Neighbours house, but to helpe him if casuallie his house fall on fire, wee are bound where wee haue autoritie to stop the mouths of other Calumniators, where wee haue noe authoritie. Yet since as the north-wind driueth Pro: 29.23 away raine, an angry countenance driueth away a backbiting tongue, at least deale soe with a Libeller, wth a Calumniator [p. 60] for hee that lookes pleasantlie, and hearkens willinglie to one libell, makes another, occasions a second; Allwaies remember Dauids case, when hee thought that hee had bin giuing Iudgement against another hee was more seuere more heauy then the Lawe admitted; The Lawe was, that hee yt had stolne the sheepe, should returne foure fold, And Dauids anger was kindled, saies the text, and hee said, and hee swore, as 2. Sam: 12 the Lord liueth that man shall restore foure fold, Et filias mortis, And hee shall surely die, Iudicis superfluentem Iustitiam! ô superabundant, and ouerflowing Iustice! when wee iudge another in passion; But this is Iudicium secundum carnem, according to wch Christs iudges no man, for Christ is Loue: and that Non cogitat malum: Loue thinks no euill any way. The charitable man, neither meditates euill against another, nor beleeues not easily any euill to bee in another non ad inter necionem though it bee told him./ Lastlie Christ judges no man, Ad internecionem, hee iudges no man so in this world as to giue a finall Condemnation vppon him here; There is no error in anie of his Iudgements, but there is an appeale from all his Iudgements in this world; There is a verdict against euery man, euery man may find his case recorded, and his sinne condemned in the Lawe, and in ye Prophetts, there is a Verdict, but before Iudgement, God would haue euery man sau’d by his booke, by the apprehension, and application of the gratious promises of the Gospell to his Case, and his Conscience, Christ iudges no man, so as that hee [p. 61] should see no remedie, but to curse God and die, not so as that hee should say, His sinne were greater then God could forgiue, for God sent not his sonne into the world Jo: 3.17 to condemne the world, but that the world through him might be saued. Do not thou then giue malicious euidence against thy selfe, do no weaken the merit, nor lessen the value of the blood of thy sauiour, as though thy sinne were greater then it; Doth God desire thy blood now, when hee hath abundantly satisfied his iustice with the blood of his sonne for thee? what has thou don? hast thou come hypocritically to this place vppon collaterall reasons, and not vppon the direct seruice of God? not for loue of information, of reformation of thy selfe? If that bee thy case, yet if a man heare my word (saies Jo: 12.47. Christ and beleiue it not, I iudge him not, Hee hath one that iudgeth him, saith Christ, and who is that ? The word that I haue spoken, the same shall iudge him, It shall; but when? It shall iudge him, saies Christ, at the last day, the day of his death, no man is past recouery no mans saluation is impossible. Hast thou admitted scruples of diffidence, and distrust in Gods mercie, and so tasted the lees of desperation? It is true, Perpetrare flagitium Isidor est mos aminæ, sed desperare est descensus ad Infernos, In euerie sinne the soule dies, but in desperatio[n] it descends into hell, but yet Portæ Inferi non præualebunt Math. 16.18 euen the gates of this hell shall not preuaile against thee; Thom: 12a. 40.ar.4 Assist thy self, Argue thine owne case, Desperation it self may be without infidelitie; Desperation as well as hope is rooted in [p. 62] the desire of happines; Desperation proceeds out of a feare of God and horror of sinne, Desperation may consist with faith thus farre, that a man may haue a true, and faithfull opinion in the generall, that there is remission of sinne, to bee had in the Church, and yet haue a corrupt imagination in the particular, that to him in this sinfull state that he is in this remission of sinnes shall not bee applied. So that the resolution of the schoole is good: Desperatio potest esse ex solo excessu bonj; Desperation may proceed from an excesse of that which is good in it selfe, from an excessiue ouerfearing of Gods Iustice, from an excessiue ouerhatinge of thine owne sinne, Et virtute quis malè vtitur? Can any man make so ill vse of so great uertues as the feare of God, and the hate of sinne? yes, they may, so forward a weed is sinne as that it can spring out of anie roote. And therfore if it haue done so in thee, and thou therby haue made thy case the harder, yet knowe still, that Obiectum spei est arduum et possibile, the true obiect of Hope is that wch. is hard to come by, yet possible to come by, and therfore as Dauid said, By 2 Sam: 22.30. my God haue I leap’d ouer a wall, so by thy God maist thou breake through a wall, through this wall of obduration which thou thy selfe hast begunne to build about thy selfe. Feather thy wings againe which euen the flames of hell haue touched in these beginnings of desperation, feather them againe with this Text, Neminem Iudicat, Christ iudges no man, so as a desperate man iudges himselfe. Do not make thy selfe [p. 63] beleeue that thou has sinnned against the holy Ghost, for this is the nearest stepp thou hast made to it, to thinke that thou hast don it, walke in that large feild of the Scriptures of God, and from the first flower, at thy entrance the flower of Paradice, Semen mulieris, The generall promise of the seed of the woman should bruise the Serpents head, to the last word of that Messias, Comsummatum est, that all yt was promised for vs is now performed, and from the first to the last thou shalt find the sauour of life vnto life in all those flowers, walke ouer the same allie againe, and consider the first man Adam in the beginninge, who involu’d thee in originall sinne, and the theefe vppon the crosse who had contynued in actuall sinn’s all his life, and seald all with the sinne of reuiling Christ himselfe a litle before his expiration, and yet recouered Paradice, and Pradice that day, and see if thou canst make any shift to exclude thyselfe, receaue the fragrancie of all these Cordialls, vt viuit Dominus, as ye Lord liueth I would not the death of a sinner, Quandocunq[ue], At what time soeuer a sinner repenteth; and of this text, Neminem iudicat, Christ iudgeth no man to destruction here, And if thou find after all these Antidotes, a suspicious Ayre, or a suspicious working in that Impossibile est, that it is impossible for them who were once enlightened, if they fall away, to renew them againe with repentance, sprinkle uppon that wormewood of Impossibile est, that Manna Quorum remiseritis, whose sinnes yee remitt are remitted, and then it will haue another tast unto thee, and thou wilt see, that that [p. 64] impossibilitie lies vppon them onlie, who are vtterly fallen away into an absolute Apostasie, and infidelitie, that make a mock of Christ, and crucifie him againe, as it is expressed there; who vnderualue, and despise the Church of God, and those meanes which Christ Iesus hath instituted in his Church for renewing such as are falne; To such it is impossible because there are noe other ordinary meanes possible, but that’s not thy Case, thy case is onlie a doubt that those meanes that are shall bee applied to thee. And euen that is a slippery state to doubt of the mercie of god to thee in particular; this goes so neere making thy sinne greater then Gods mercie, as that it makes thy sinne greater, the[n] daylie Adulteries, daylie murders, daylie blasphemies, daylie prophanings of the sabaoth could haue done, And though thou canst neuer make that true in this life, that thy sinnes are greater then God can forgiue, yet this is a way to make them greater, then God will forgiue./
Now to collect both our excercises, and to connex both Texts, Christ iudgeth all men, and Christ iudgeth no man, Hee claimes all Iudgement, and hee disauowes all Iudgement, and they consist well together, Hee was at our Creation, but that was not his first sence, The Arrians, who say, Erat guando non erat, there was a time when Christ was not intimating that hee had a beginning, and therfore was a Creature, yet they will allowe that hee was created before the generall Creation, and so assisted at ours, But hee was infinit [p. 65] generations before that in the bosome of his Father at our Election, and there in him was executed the first Iudgemt., and so comes to his second Iudgement, to seale all those in the visible Church with the outward marke of his Baptisme, and the inward marke of his spiritt, And those whome hee calls so, hee iustifies, and sanctifies, and brings them to his third Iudgement, to an establish’d, and perpetuall glorie. And so all Iudgement is his. But then to iudge out of humane affections, and passions, by detraction, and calumny as they did to whome hee spoke at this tyme, So hee iudges no man, so hee denies Iudgement: To vsurpe upon the iurisdiction of others, or to excercise anie other iudgement then was in his commission, as his pretended Vicar doth. So hee Iudgeth no man, soe hee disavowes Iudgement, To Iudge so as that our condemnation should be irremediable in this life, soe hee iudges noe man soe hee forsweares all Iudgement. As I liue, saith ye Lord of hoasts, and as I haue died, saith the Lord Iesus, soe I iudge no man. Acknowledge his first Iudgement, thy Election in him, Christs second Iudgement, Thy Iustification by him, breath, and pant after his 3 Iudgement, thy Crowne of glory for him. Intrude not vpon the right of other men, wch is the first; Defame not, calumniat not other men, which is the second; Lay not the name of Reprobate in this life vppon any man wch. is the thirde, Iudgement that Christ disauowes here, and then thou [p. 66] shalt haue well vnderstood, and well practiz’d both these Texts. The Father hath committed all Iudgement to the sonne, and yet the Sonne iudges no man./
At Lincolnes Inne.
3o Ianuar: 1619./